Gardeners know that earthworms can be beneficial for growing vegetables and flowers by helping with soil aeration and producing fertilizer through their castings. Sugar makers may not know that earthworms and relatively newer invaders the so-called "crazy snake worm" pose a significant threat to their sugarbush. Worms in the northeastern US are exotic and some are invasive meaning they can become established and disrupt the native species present. Earthworms can effect changes in the forest soil making it difficult for native plants (such as sugar maple) to survive. The worms can disrupt the lifecycle of certain plant species browsed by animals which leaves the remaining tree seedlings the only food source available. Long term risks for our native hardwood forests are a concern for foresters and natural resource professionals alike. There are no recommendations for removing established worm populations and research into the changes in forest ecosystems is ongoing. Recommendations are focused on preventing these organisms from being established in the first place. Another important consideration is to avoid bringing soil or other organic matter from other properties.