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Spatial information is encoded in the diffracted rays.
See back focal plane using telescope
The rear focal plane of the objective can be observed using a telescope insert into the eyepiece tube.
Diffraction pattern in the transform plane
Demonstration of diffraction patterns in a test object - (Diatom test slide).
Spatial filtering in the transform plane
Using a small aperture slider to remove diffracted orders in the transform plane eliminates detail in the image plane.
Acceptance angle vs working distance
Working distance decreases with increasing acceptance angle.
Numerical Aperture vs useful magnification
A quick estimate of useful magnification: N.A. X 1000.
Deriving Numerical Aperture = N.A.
The geometries of diffraction patterns must match the geometries of acceptance angle.
Condenser N.A. must at least match that of the objective to realize full resolution.
Complex frequency-based information can be decomposed into combinations of simple waveforms.